GIACINTO DELLA CANANEA
Universities have become such a common trait of modern civilization that some tend to forget two salient facts; that is, their origin and the importance of academic freedom. Historically, while other centers of higher learning have existed in other epochs and in other regions of the world, the modern Western universities have arisen in Europe during the Middle Age, including Bologna (1088), Oxford (1096), Paris (1150), Coimbra
(1290), Vienna (1365), and Heidelberg (1386). Especially the universities created by both scholars and students (as distinct from those established by religious or secular authorities), have recognized their rights to teach and learn, respectively, without interference by governmental authorities and social groups.